What is the normal thickness of plantar fascia on msk ultrasound?

Under musculoskeletal ultrasound imaging, the normal plantar fascia appears as a taut, fibrous band extending from the calcaneus to the metatarsal heads distally. It is characterized by a homogenous, smooth, uniform gray echotexture. Deep to the fascia are the mixed echoes of the foot intrinsic muscles including the flexor digitorum brevis and quadratus plantae.

Normal plantar fascia thickness is typically 3-4mm. Thickening, hypoechogenicity, and loss of uniform smoothness, especially in the medial band of the tissue, are indicators of fasciitis/fasciopathy that can cause foot pain.

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